ATTACHMENT AND BONDING
ATTACHMENT AFTER ADOPTION
Although considerable research has addressed the effects of institutionalization on attachment, relatively little has been reported about the effects of adoption after institutionalization. Early research suggested that children were incapable of developing a first attachment after infancy. More recently, others have found no relationship to age at placement and attachment security, although differences in attachment quality among children adopted after 6-10 months of age or those adopted interracially have been cited. In one study of 13-18 month old infants adopted between 3 and 10 months of age, no relationship was found between the infant's developmental quotient, number of foster homes, and age at adoption and the quality of mother-infant attachment. However, clinginess, attention seeking, difficulties establishing deep social attachments, and indiscriminate friendliness may persist for years after adoption as "minor" signs of disturbed attachment. The experience of the child during the transition to the new adoptive family also affects attachment.
From THE HANDBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL ADOPTION MEDICINE by Laurie C. Miller. © 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Used by Permission.