INTRODUCTION - PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO MATERNAL SMOKING
Accurate information about birth mothers' tobacco use during pregnancy is rarely available for international adoptees. Like prenatal exposure to illicit drugs or alcohol, maternal smoking during pregnancy is linked to many problems in the fetus, infant, and child. Maternal smoking during pregnancy has long-term effects on the child's attention, behavior, and cognition in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Some effects may persist to adulthood. Such problems are common among international adoptees, although the causes are multifactorial. This section surveys the epidemiology of smoking among women in sending countries. The long-term neurobehavioral effects on offspring after maternal smoking during pregnancy are reviewed. The effects of environmental tobacco smoke on other organ systems have been reviewed.