PERINATAL EFFECTS OF MATERNAL DRUG USE
Regardless of the difficulties cited above, there are some consistent findings in infants after in utero drug exposure. Prematurity intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, and neurologic abnormalities have been reported after heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine exposure (even after controlling for tobacco use). Withdrawal syndrome and less severe neurologic signs such as irritability, restlessness, and abnormalities in posture and tone occur after exposure to several types of drugs. Internationally adopted children are seldom, if ever, placed as newborns, thus the immediate effects of prenatal drug exposure are unlikely to be observed by American parents or doctors. Toxicology screens are not helpful after the newborn period.