SPECIAL REGIONAL CONSIDERATIONS - KAZAKHSTAN
HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL ADOPTION
Following the breakup of the former Soviet Union, the Independent Republic of Kazakhstan was founded in 1991. The sharp decline in the Kazakh economy contributed to a large number of children being abandoned and living in orphanages. Although the economy has made a come back in recent years, due to economic reform and foreign investment, the number of children living in institutions has grown. Kazakhstan adoption statistics start in 1998. For prior years, they are lumped into "Soviet Union".
Currently the adoption legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan is based on the Constitution of Kazakhstan, Convention on Children's Rights (Kazakhstan joined this convention in 1994), the Marriage and Family Law of Kazakhstan as well as other laws and regulations. According to the current laws of Kazakhstan, Kazakh children are available for adoption by foreigners if the citizens of Kazakhstan, who permanently reside in Kazakhstan, do not take care of them, if relatives of these children do not adopt them, regardless of their citizenship or place of living. In order to regulate the process of international adoption and according to the article 209 of the Marriage and Family Law of Kazakhstan, remedial legislation made by the Government of Kazakhstan on the 12th of November 2002 #1197, the Rules of adoption of children - citizens of Kazakhstan - by foreigners were approved. The children can be adopted by citizens of Kazakhstan who do not reside on the territory of Kazakhstan, by foreigners, who are not relatives of the children, in 3 months after putting the children on the centralized registry at the Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan.
According to the Law of Kazakhstan on changes and additions to the Law of Kazakhstan on Kazakh citizenship of May 17, 2002 #322-11, the child who is a citizen of Kazakhstan and is adopted by foreigners maintains his/her citizenship until the age of consent. The child can become the citizen of another country only after coming of age and according to his/her free will. This requirement was introduced to protect the rights of adopted children.
2 Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, kazakhembus.com/index.php?page=adoption