SPECIAL REGIONAL CONSIDERATIONS - RUSSIA
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CHILDREN ADOPTED FROM RUSSIA
Before the adoption
Children reside in state-run orphanages. Foster care is virtually unknown. "Baby homes" provide care for children under 3 years of age. Children are then transferred to orphanages where they reside until age approximately 7 years. These homes are under the management of the Ministry of Health in each region (oblast). After age 7, children become the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, which supervises orphanage care until age approximately 17 years. At each transfer point, children are evaluated by a team of specialists to determine the appropriate placement (e.g. special needs facility, educational program, etc.). The quality of care varies drastically among orphanages and is directly related to the physical and psychological health of the children.
According to data from the Health and Social Development Ministry, more than 730,000 children in Russia either have no parents or have been abandoned by their parents. About 200,000 of them live in orphanages and internats, (or living facilities that include a school). In 2007, the state registered 123,000 new orphans, but 120,000 of them were able to be placed with extended family members, adopted or placed in foster homes. Children younger than five live in a dom rebyonka, a baby house. After that, they move to either a detsky dom, a children's house, where they live while attending an internat. There are also separate facilities for orphaned children with mental or physical disabilities. More than 160,000 names remain in the state database of children waiting to be adopted.26
26 Russian Orphans, by Svetlana Osadchuk, The Moscow Times, May 19, 2008, www.moscowtimes.ru/article/1013/42/362861.htm
Unless otherwise noted content is from THE HANDBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL ADOPTION MEDICINE by Laurie C. Miller. © 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Used by Permission.